In passenger cars, fuel tanks, as a rule, are installed directly under the rear seat in the most protected zone from the rear impact. To securely mount the tank to the car body, special band-type clamps are used.

The bottom of the tank on some vehicles is protected by a metal plate. To protect the tank from overheating, which can occur due to contact with the tank exhaust pipe, use thermal insulating pads. If the accident damaged not only the fuel tank, but also the main parts of the machine, it is easier to recycle it:

For each vehicle develops its own fuel tank, taking into account the design features of the vehicle. As a rule, the volume of the tank is trying to make the fuel reserve allows to travel an average of 500 kilometers. Diesel cars, as a rule, on one filling can overcome a much greater distance because of its efficiency.

Material for Fuel Tanks

Modern fuel tanks can be made of different materials – metal (aluminum or steel alloys) and plastic.

Metal tanks

For the manufacture of metal fuel tanks is used stamped sheet, with gasoline and diesel fuel – aluminum sheet, for gas – steel. Metal tanks are highly durable, resistant to wear and reliability, but have some limits on shape.

Plastic tanks

Fuel tanks made of high-strength plastic are becoming increasingly popular. The use of high density plastic allows the production of tanks of any configuration and volume.

Plastic tanks are resistant to scratches, chipping and corrosion. To avoid fuel leakage on a molecular level, plastic tanks are multilayer, and the inner surface of the tank walls are treated with a protective layer of fluorine.

Fuel tanks can vary depending on the type of engine, body, fuel system design and fuel supply system.

Structure and operation of the fuel tank

The fuel tank is fed through a neck located above the rear fender (left or right). The left-hand position of the neck is the most convenient, but for some reason most cars are equipped with a neck on the right side.

The convenience is that the queue at gas stations for cars with a left-hand neck is many times smaller, the driver walks less, and most importantly – there is less chance of forgetting to take out the filler gun and drive away with the hose.

The filler neck is connected to the tank by a pipe called a fuel line. A screw-type cap is most commonly used to close the filler neck.

On some Ford models, the fuel filler neck does not have a protective cap (Easyfuel system), but is equipped with a special hatch with a lock, which opens with an electric motor and drive when the filler gun is inserted into the neck.

The fuel system is fed through the fuel outlet line, with the excess fuel returned to the tank through the fuel drain line.

Gasoline engines are equipped with fuel tanks with an electric fuel pump.

  For controlling the fuel level in the tank is a special sensor, which is called: fuel level sensor. In gasoline engines it is connected to the fuel pump, in diesel engines it is mounted as an independent element.

In tanks, with a simple design there is only one sensor installed, in tanks, with a complex, multi-chamber configuration there can be two such sensors.

The fuel tank ventilation system allows for a constant air pressure inside the fuel tank.

Low pressure can deform the tank and stop the fuel supply. High pressure can cause the fuel tank to rupture. That’s why it’s so important to maintain optimum pressure inside the tank to prevent serious damage.

Modern tanks use a closed venting system where the tank does not interact with incoming air.

In order to avoid air discharge inside the tank, a safety valve is installed, which is located on the fuel filler cap. The primary purpose of this valve is to allow air to flow in one direction and prevent it from flowing in the opposite direction.

Excessive vapors from the fuel supply to the tank are exhausted through a vent line parallel to the fuel line to the tank.

The pipeline for fuel vapor outlet is equipped with a special compensating tank. There is also a gravity type valve, which is designed to prevent fuel spillage from the fuel tank in case the vehicle is overturned.

The vapor extraction during fuel heating from the tank is carried out with the help of the gasoline vapor extraction system. This system is part of the fuel tank venting system, which, based on temperature and pressure sensors, traps gasoline vapors and removes them from the tank.


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